Principles and Advantages of ELISA
ELISA stands for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and this Elisa technique is widely used in scientific research today and has made great contributions in many fields. So how much do you know about it? Are you also curious about its principle? Today we will introduce the principles and advantages of Elisa.
Principle of ELISA
An ELISA assay is an immunoassay technique used in the detection of disease that detects the presence of an antigen in a biological sample. ELISA, like other types of immunoassays, uses highly specific antibody and antigen interactions to detect the target antigen. The specific principles of it can be seen as follows to help you understand better:
- The working principle of ELISA is the interaction between antigen and antibody. When the interaction occurs, the substrate and enzyme are combined and transformed to obtain the result.
- ELISA assay mainly uses antigens or antibodies to bind to the surface of a certain solid-phase carrier, and maintains their immunological activity.
- The antigen or antibody is linked with an enzyme to form an enzyme-labeled antigen or antibody, which not only retains its immunological activity, but also retains the activity of the enzyme.
- During the determination, the test specimen and the enzyme-labeled antigen or antibody react with the antigen or antibody on the surface of the solid-phase carrier to form an antigen-antibody complex according to different steps and procedures.
- The antigen-antibody complex formed on the solid-phase carrier is separated from other substances by washing, and finally the amount of enzyme bound to the solid-phase carrier is proportional to the amount of the substance to be tested in the sample.
- Add the substrate of the enzyme reaction, it will be catalyzed by the enzyme on the solid phase carrier to produce a color change, the amount of the colored product is directly related to the amount of the test substance in the sample, and qualitative or quantitative analysis can be performed according to it, so that Determine the presence and content of the substance to be tested in the sample, and provide useful antigen and antibody concentration measurements. To increase the sensitivity of the assay, ELISA plates should be coated with high-affinity antibodies.
- ELISA has high sensitivity. Due to the use of enzymes as an organic catalyst, it has a high catalytic frequency and can effectively amplify the reaction effect, so this determination method is very sensitive. This makes ELISA assays for detection of antibodies or antigens easier to perform.
- ELISA has stable specificity, and the interaction between antibody and antigen has strong specificity.
- ELISA is widely used and contributes its own strength in various fields. It can be used in the food industry to detect any food allergens present. This assay can also apply to determine the concentration of serum antibodies in virus tests.
- Ease of implementation, high throughput and high efficiency. Experiments can be performed in 96 well plates, and the complete protocol requires little hands-on time.
- A wide range of sample types can be tested, whether it is serum, tissue extracts or urine, saliva, cells, etc.
ELISA technology is regarded as a flexible and effective tool by many experts and laboratories in the world. Common ELISA detection methods are direct ELISA, indirect ELISA, sandwich ELISA, competitive ELISA, etc. ELISA detection is inseparable from ELISA plate, if you need to buy high binding ELISA plate, Hawach has the high-quality products you need waiting for you to buy.